Recent advances in thyroid eye disease: An overview

Review Article

Author Details : Rajendra Prakash Maurya, Ananya P R, Syeed Mehbub UL Kadir, Virendra Pratap Singh, Deepsekhar Das, Saloni Gupta, Sahil Agrawal*, Vibha Singh, Meghna Roy

Volume : 7, Issue : 2, Year : 2021

Article Page : 117-130

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Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a chronic debilitating condition which causes physical discomfort, oculo-facial disfigurement and compromised visual function. Around 25% of people with Graves’ hyperthyroidism are affected by TED, where 1 in 20 patients might report with moderate-to-severe, active disease that will require medical management for reducing both TED activity and severity. The mainstay of medical management involves intravenous corticosteroids for active moderate-to-severe TED. After accurate understanding of the mechanism and pathophysiology of this disease, investigations and randomised clinical trials have been conducted. The role of immunotherapy targeting and influencing different biomolecular pathways including that of T cells, B cells, cytokines and cell surface receptors have been investigated in various randomised clinical trials. This review article addresses the epidemiology, associated risk factors, recent advances in pathophysiology, newer diagnostic tools and current management options available for TED which include the use of immunosuppressive drugs like rituximab (RTX), tocilizumab, infliximab (IFX), etanercept ( ETN) and teprotumumab etc.

Keywords: Thyroid eye disease, Graves' orbitopathy, Orbital fibroblast, Insulin like growth factor­1, Cytokine, rituximab, Tocilizumab, Teprotumumab

How to cite : Maurya R P, Ananya P R, Kadir S M U, Singh V P, Das D, Gupta S, Agrawal S, Singh V, Roy M, Recent advances in thyroid eye disease: An overview. IP Int J Ocul Oncol Oculoplasty 2021;7(2):117-130

Copyright © 2021 by author(s) and IP Int J Ocul Oncol Oculoplasty. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (

Article History

Received : 06-06-2021

Accepted : 17-06-2021

Available online : 24-07-2021

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